Test Bank (Downloadable files) For Families Now Diversity, Demography, and Development 1st Edition| ©2019 by Crosnoe ISBN:9781319196998

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Test Bank (Downloadable files) For Families Now Diversity, Demography, and Development 1st Edition| ©2019 by Robert Crosnoe, ISBN:9781319196998

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Test Bank(Downloadable files) For Families Now Diversity, Demography, and Development 1st Edition| ©2019 by Crosnoe

Table of Contents
PART I: The Big Picture

Chapter 1

Myths and Realities: Defining, Understanding, and Studying Family Life

Families in a Diversifying and

Changing World

Why the Definition of Family Matters

Changing Family Structures

Changing Racial Dynamics

Changing Economics

Changing Religion

The Impact of Globalization

Bias: Our Barrier to Understanding Families

The Perspective Bias

The Unity Bias

The Selection Bias

Scientific Research: The Antidote to Bias

The Importance of Sound Research

The Theory Piece

The Methods Piece

Quantitative Research Methods

Qualitative Research Methods

Different Approaches for Different Questions

Different Questions for Different Purposes

Connecting Macro to Micro

Two Levels of Family Life

Theories That Connect the Macro and Micro Levels of Family Life

Looking Ahead

Review Questions

Chapter 2

Families Throughout History: The Social Construction of Us

Two Social Forces That Define and Influence Us



Connecting Construction and Diffusion

Families in the United States Today and How We Got Here

The Contemporary United States

The Colonial Period

Gender Roles in the Public Sphere

Children’s Roles

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Colonial Family Life

The Industrial Revolution and the Separation of Spheres

The Transformation of Gender Roles

Reconceiving Childhood

The Post–World War Years: The 1950s Retreat

The Evolution of Specific Family Forms

Changes in the Nuclear Family

The Emergence of the White Nuclear Family

Poverty, Race, and Diversity in the Nuclear Family

Beyond the Nuclear Family

Historical Changes in Gender, Work, and Family

The Evolution of Specific Family Roles and Relationships

Marriage and Intimate Partnerships

Preindustrial Era: Marriage Out of Necessity

Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Starting to Feel the Love

Postindustrial Era: Marriage as Work

Parenting and Childhood


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Historical Comparisons of Families on TV

Chapter 3

The Long Arm of the Law: Legal Constructions of Family

Contemporary Policy Regimes and Their Historical Evolution

Relations Between the State and Family

Constructing U.S. Families from the Colonial Period to Today

Early Intervention Followed by Retreat

Obvious Versus Subtle Coercion

Contemporary Protections

How the Law Shapes Who Can Marry and Divorce

Marital Definitions, Standards, and Rights

Race/Ethnicity, Marriage, and the Law

Religion and Marriage Law

LGBTQ Marital Rights

Access to Divorce

The Evolution of No-Fault Divorce

Covenant Marriage Laws

How the Law Maintains Gender Inequalities

Making a Wife a Husband’s Property



Child Custody and Support

Child Custody

Child Support

Custody and Support in the LGBTQ Population

Children’s Role in Family and Society

Doctrine of Parens Patriae

Child Labor and Schooling

Children at Work

Children at School

Child Care 98

The Special Case of Immigration Law and Families

Marriage as the Channel for Citizenship

Newer Developments in Family Immigration

Immigration Status and Family Inequality 1

Immigration Policy and Children


Review Questions 1

Application Exercise: Examining State Variation in Gun Laws

Chapter 4

The Haves and Have-Nots: Families, Economics, and Inequality

The Impact of Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Understanding Socioeconomic Status

SES as a Point of Comparison

The Inertia of SES Within Families

SES Influence on Family Dynamics

The Impact of Hard Times

Families in Poverty

Defining Poverty

Measuring Poverty

Government Measurement of Poverty

Assessing the Federal Poverty Line as a Measure of Poverty

Improving the Federal Poverty Line

Poverty Rates

Poverty Rates by Race/Ethnicity, Region, and Age

Marriage, Children, and Gender

The Consequences of Poverty

Poverty, Risk, and Resilience

Responses to Poverty

History of Government Welfare

Welfare Reform

The Post-Reform Era

Other Strategies to Reduce Poverty


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Understanding Poverty in Place

Chapter 5

Conflict or Balance? The Interplay of Gender, Work, and Family Life

How Gender Connects Work and Family

Gender and the Roles We Take On

Work and Marriage

Work and Divorce

Work and Decisions to Have Children

Work and Parenting Roles

Work and Intensive Mothering

Motherhood Penalty and Fatherhood Bonus

Work–Family Interplay Among Parents

Work–Family Conflict

Work–Family Facilitation

Conflict, Facilitation, and Stress

Parents’ Work and Children’s Outcomes

Maternal Employment and Child Development

Nonstandard Schedules as a Work Characteristic Problematic for Children

Obesity as a Child Outcome Sensitive to Maternal Work

Work That Benefits Parents and Children

Supports for Women and Families with Children

Parental Leave

Affordable, Quality Child Care

Workplace Flexibility


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Measuring Work Conditions

PART II: Family Structure and Status

Chapter 6

The Family? Children’s Lives Across Diverse Family Structures

Children in Two-Parent Family Structures

Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Two-Parent Families

Developmental Benefits of Two Parents

Children in Single-Parent Family Structures

Statistics on Single-Parent Families

Outcomes for Children in Single-Parent Families

Dealing with the Lingering Stigma of Single Parenthood

The Economics of Single Parenthood

Children in Stepparent Family Structures

Incomplete Institutionalization of Stepparent Families

Children in Stepparent Families

The Developmental Impact of Changing Family Structures

Cohabitation, Nonmarital Births, and Other Kinds of Family Structure

Parental Cohabitation and How It Influences Children

Families Beginning with Nonmarital Births

Same-Sex Partners with Children

Developmental Outcomes of Children with Same-Sex Parents

Gender, Sexuality, and Children Raised by Same-Sex Couples

Extended Families with Children

Race/Ethnicity, Immigration, and Extended Families

Multigenerational Households 2

Developmental Outcomes and Extended Families

Adoptive Families

International and Domestic Adoption

Developmental Outcomes of Children in Adoptive Families


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Comparing Child Outcomes Across Family Structures

Chapter 7

Partnering: How and Why People Marry and Cohabit 2

Marriage as a Formal Union

Marriage Across Diverse Settings and Groups

Remarriage Across Diverse Settings and Groups

Supply, Demand, and Consequence in Marriage

Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and the Modern Delay of Marriage

Marriage Market Dynamics

Similarity as Attraction

Socioeconomic Factors in the Marriage Market

Why Marriage Rates Matter

Marital Resources and Protections

Marriage and Health

Cohabitation as an Informal Union

Trends in Cohabitation

Types of Cohabitation

The Link Between Premarital Cohabitation and Divorce

Cohabitation from a Global Perspective

Same-Sex Couples at the Intersection of Formal and Informal

The Legal Landscape of Same-Sex Marriage

Characteristics of Same-Sex Unions

Children Within Same-Sex Unions

Gender and the Path to Formal and Informal Unions

Adolescent Romance

Dimensions and Components of Adolescent Relationships

Early Relationships as a Training Ground for Adulthood

Relationship Formation in Young Adulthood

Relationship Formation from Young Adulthood to Adulthood


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Comparing Cohabitation Across Countries

Chapter 8

Becoming a Parent: Societal and Personal Trends in Fertility and Infertility

Conceiving and Bearing Children

Fertility as a Characteristic of the Population

Fertility Rates Across Countries

Fertility Declines by Region

Fertility Paradoxes and Myths

Causes and Consequences of Declining Fertility

A Spotlight on Teen Mothers

Perceptions of the Teen Pregnancy Crisis

Assessing the Effects of Teen Pregnancy

Transitioning into Parenthood

The Run-Up to Being a Parent

Relationships Between Parents

Not Conceiving and Bearing Children

Intentions to Have a Child or Not

Wanting and Planning

Ambivalence About Getting Pregnant


Diversity in Contraception Use

Contraception Use Among Teens


Rate and the Demographics of Abortions

Women’s Experiences of Having Abortions


Socioeconomic Status, Age, and Infertility

Responses to Infertility

Controversial Topics About Fertility and the Transition to Parenthood

Race, Class, and Nonmarital Fertility

Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Differences in Nonmarital Fertility

Myths About Nonmarital Fertility

Economic Resources and the Disconnect

Between Marriage and Fertility

Race, Class, and Multipartner Fertility

Multipartner Fertility and Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Inequality

The Connection Between Multipartner and Nonmarital Fertility


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Examining Differences in Fertility

Chapter 9

Breaking Up: Trends in Divorce, Separation, and Family Instability

The When and Who of Divorce

Historical Rates of Divorce

Differences in Measurement

Putting Divorce Trends in Context

Age and Divorce

Educational Attainment and Divorce

Race/Ethnicity and Divorce

Sexual Orientation and Divorce

Multiple Divorces

The Divorce Process

Time of Divorce

Phases of Divorce

The Aftermath of Divorce

Contributing Factors to the Divorce Process

The Importance of Selection into Divorce

Family Factors That Undermine Marriage

Multiple Risks

Adults’ Experiences of Divorce

Adverse Health Consequences for Divorcees

Why Divorce Has Adverse Health Consequences

Assessing Cause and Effect in Divorce

Causal Mechanisms Linking Divorce to Health Outcomes

Variation in the Links Between Divorce and Health Outcomes

Children’s Experiences of Divorce

Consequences for Children 3

Are the Consequences of Divorce Real?

Long-Term Effects of Divorce Effects on Children

Children and Divorce: Sources of Risk and Resilience


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Exploring National Data on Family Instability

PART III: Family Relationships

Chapter 10

Love, Conflict, and Negotiation: Relationships Between Couples

Good and Bad Relationships

Relationship Quality

Examples of Vulnerability, Stress, and Adaptation

How Children Make a Relationship Vulnerable

Minority Status as a Stressor on Relationship Quality

Religion and Adaptation amid Threats to Relationship Quality

Two Core Dimensions of Romantic Partnerships

Doing Gender

The Role of Gender Ideology

How Gender Intersects with Other Demographic Factors

Gender in Everyday Life

Power Struggles

Gender, Power, and Same-Sex Couples

Who Holds the Power?

The Binding Elements of Relationships

Communication and Support

Communication Between Partners

Socioemotional Support

Healthy Sex Life

Frequency of Sex

Sexual Satisfaction

Differences in Sex Across Countries

Sexual Satisfaction and Gender

Fault Lines

Poor Conflict Resolution

Conflict and Polarization in Couples

Differences in How Couples Engage in Conflict

Unequal Division of Household Labor

Gender and Housework

Explanations of Gender Inequality in Housework Infidelity

Rates of Infidelity Across Diverse Groups

Damage and Recovery


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Calculating the Effects of Housework on Sex

Chapter 11

Role of a Lifetime: How We Fulfill and Violate the Parent Role

Basic Components of the Parent Role

Cultural Diffusion of the Parenting Role

Parental Support

Parental Investment

Protection and Control

Learning How to Be a Parent

The Socialization of Parents

Macro-Level Socialization into the Parent Role

Micro-Level Influences in the Family

Micro-Level Influences in the Workplace and Among Peers

Micro-Level Influences from Personality and Disposition

A Closer Look at Time and Its Influence on the Parent Role

Discipline, Corporal Punishment, and Ambiguity in the Parent Role

Physical Discipline

Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Corporal Punishment

What the Research Says

Breast-Feeding and the Gender Politics of Parenting

An Overview of Breast-Feeding

Rates of Breast-Feeding 3

The Recent History of Breast-Feeding in the United States

Breast-Feeding and the Meaning of Motherhood


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Data on Gender and Parenting

Chapter 12

Evolving and Adapting: Parents, Children, and Inequality over the Life Course

Parenting During Infancy

Attachment Theory

Styles of Attachment

Attachment in the Broader Society

Parenting During the Preschool Years

Brain Development and Cognitive Stimulation

Play and Language Development

Socioeconomic Differences in Early Language Use

Policy Approaches to Preschool Cognitive Development

Parenting During Later Childhood

Managing Children’s Educational Opportunities

Concerted Cultivation Versus Natural Growth

Parenting During Adolescence

The Risky Behavior of Adolescents

Parents’ Attempts to Control Adolescents’ Risky Behavior

Parenting Styles: Balancing Parental Control and Adolescent Autonomy

Parenting Styles Across Racial/Ethnic and Immigration Groups

Parenting During Young Adulthood

The Delayed Transition into Adulthood

Social Class and a New Model of Parenting

Extended Patterns of Co-residence


Emotional Support


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Assessing Your Parents’ Style

Chapter 13

Beyond Nuclear: The Evolving Impact of Multigenerational Family Life

The New Demography of Families

Population Trends Influencing Intergenerational Ties

The Meaning and Impact of Population Changes

The Age Structure of Families Is Getting Older and More Complex

Older and More Complex Families Mean More Resources and Responsibilities

Older and More Complex Families Create Choice in Relationships to Prioritize

Older and More Complex Families Complicate the Transfer of Power

Intergenerational Dynamics

The Emotional Tone of Intergenerational Relations

Solidarity Theory

Ambivalence Theory

Support Exchanges Across Generations

Downward and Upward Exchanges

Contingency Exchanges

Social Exchange Theory

The Impact of Intragenerational Dynamics on Intergenerational Relations

Distance, Gender, and Support

Differences in Support by Age and Generation

Grandparent–Grandchild Relationships

Changing Relationships as Grandparents Age and Grandchildren Develop

Grandparent Investments in Grandchildren

Race/Ethnicity, Immigration, Social Class, and Grandparents in the Household


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Mapping Intergenerational Lineages

Chapter 14

The Dark Side of Family Life: Shining a Light on Family Violence

Partner Abuse

Violence Against Partners

Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration and Victimization

Gender and Sexual Orientation

Race and Ethnicity


Vulnerability to Violence in a Relationship

Factors That Lead to IPV

Theories Explaining IPV

Key Influences on IPV

Addressing the Problem of Intimate Partner Violence

Child Abuse

Ways that Parents Maltreat Their Children

Parents Who Maltreat Their Children

How Much of a Factor Is Parents’ SES?

Theories to Explain Parents’ Maltreatment of Children

Which Children Are More Likely to Be Victims of Maltreatment?

Consequences of Child Maltreatment for Children and Society

Elder Abuse

Types of Elder Abuse

Causes of Elder Abuse

Fighting Elder Abuse


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Tracking Child Protective Services

Chapter 15

Fellow Travelers: Sibling Relations Across Time and Place

An Overview of Sibling Relationships

Characteristics of Sibling Relationships

The Structure of Sibling Relationships

Impact of Gender

Impact of Size

Impact of Birth Order

The Special Case of the Only Child

Sibling Relationship Quality

The Developmental Pathway of Sibling Relationships over the Life Course

Siblings and Aging Parents

Siblings and End-of-Life Care and Planning

Sibling Relationships Within the Family System

Impact of Differential Treatment

Impact of Sibling Temperament and Health

Impact of Siblings on Parenting Style

Impact of Siblings’ Perceptions of Each Other

The Upside and Downside of Siblings

Siblings as Resources

Social Development and Emotional Support 5

Practical Assistance and Support

Risks in Sibling Relationships

Modeling Bad Behavior

Sibling Conflict and Violence

Sibling Similarities and Differences

Why Siblings Are Similar



Why Siblings Are Different



Complex Interplay of Genes and Environment

Purposeful Differentiation amid Similarity


Review Questions

Application Exercise: Assessing Sibling Characteristics

Glossary G-1

References R-1

Author Index AI-1

Subject Index SI-1