Test Bank (Downloadable files) For Speak Up! An Illustrated Guide to Public Speaking 4th Edition| ©2017 by M. Fraleigh ISBN:9781319064600

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Test Bank (Downloadable files)For Speak Up! An Illustrated Guide to Public Speaking 4th Edition| ©2017 by Douglas M. Fraleigh,Joseph S. Tuman, ISBN:9781319064600

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Test Bank (Downloadable files) For Speak Up! An Illustrated Guide to Public Speaking 4th Edition| ©2017 by M. Fraleigh

Table of Contents

Brief Contents
            What Is Public Speaking? 
Why Study Public Speaking?
                Using Public Speaking as a Student
                             [Insert Video Icon] Video 1.1: “Gender-Based Responses in Sports Chatrooms”
                Using Public Speaking in Your Career
Using Public Speaking in Your Community
            Public Speaking: A Great Tradition
Public Speaking: A Dynamic Discipline
                From Linear to Transactional: Evolving Views of the Public Speaking Process
New Technologies, New Channels
Awareness of Audiences’ Cultural Diversity
                           Video 1.2: “Humanity 4 Haitian Development”
                Emphasis on Critical Thinking
A Focus on Free and Ethical Communication
            Chapter Review2         DEVELOPING YOUR FIRST SPEECH
Why Prepare?
The Classical Approach to Speech Preparation
Preparing and Delivering Your First SpeechAnalyze Your Audience
Select Your Topic
Determine Your Speech’s Rhetorical Purpose
Create a Thesis Statement
Determine Your Main Points
                               Video 2.1: “Previews, Transitions, and Summaries”
                    Develop Supporting Materials
Organize and Outline the Body of Your Speech
Outline Your Introduction and Conclusion
                                 Key Term: Introduction
Key Term: Conclusion
                    Incorporate Transitions
                                  Key Term: Transition
                    Consider Your Word Choice
Consider Presentation Aids
Practice Your Speech
                                 Key Term: Extemporaneous Delivery
Video 2.2: “Lui, Preventing Cyberbullying”
                    Deliver Your Speech
                                 Video 2.3: “Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton”
Overcoming Speech Anxiety
                    Prepare Early and Follow a Plan
Take Care of Yourself
Visualize Success
Use Relaxation Techniques
Volunteer to Speak First
Never Defeat Yourself
              Chapter Review
Video 2.4: “Garza, How to Buy a Guitar”
Codes of Ethics: Absolute, Situational, and Culturally Relative

Legal Speech vs. Ethical Speech
Communicating Truthfully
False Inference
              Acknowledging the Work of Others
                               Video 3.1: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Testimony)”
             Quoting from a Source
                               Video 3.2: “Citing Someone Else’s Idea”
              Paraphrasing the Work of Others
                               Key Term: Paraphrasing
              Common Knowledge
Using Sound Reasoning
         Being an Ethical Listener
               Show Courtesy
Demonstrate an Open Mind
Hold the Speaker Accountable
         Chapter Review4       LISTENING SKILLS
The Listening ProcessListening vs. Hearing
Processing What You’ve Heard
Retaining What You’ve Processed
Listening Styles
         The Culprits Behind Poor Listening
               Unprocessed Note Taking
Interruptive Listening
Agenda-Driven Listening
Argumentative Listening
Nervous Listening
         Becoming a Better Listener
               Filter Out Distractions
Focus on the Speaker
Show That You Are Listening
         Maximizing Your Audience’s Listening
               Anticipate Ineffective Listening Before Your Speech
Encourage Active Listening during Your Speech
         Listening When You Are in the Audience
Chapter Review
Understanding Situational Characteristics

         Incorporating Demographics
Key Term Video: Demographics
                          Video 5.1: “Poplin, The Importance of Community Service and Civic Engagement”
                Gender Composition
 Video 5.2: “Singh, The Importance of Playing Sports Has
Grown over Time”
                Sexual Orientation
Race and Ethnicity
Religious Orientation
Socioeconomic Background
Political Affiliation
Putting the Demographic Pieces Together
           Seeking Common Ground
Video 5.3: “Churchill, St. James Palace Speech”
Identifying Prior Exposure
Identifying Audience Disposition
Gathering Information About Your Audience
                Surveying Your Audience
Interviewing Your Audience
Considering and Observing Your Audience
     Situational Audience Analysis
Chapter Review
Developing a Set of Potential Topics
Word Association
Mind Mapping
           Selecting the Best Topic
                Consider the Assignment
Consider Your Audience
Consider Your Knowledge and Interests
                        Video 6.1 “Moise, Humanity 4 Haitian Development”
                Consider the Speech Context
Choose a Topic and Stick with It
          Refining Your Topic
                Decide Your Rhetorical Purpose
                         Video 6.2: “Overused Topic (Needs Improvement)”
Drafting Your Specific Purpose
Drafting Your Thesis Statement
Key Term: Thesis Statement
Video 6.3: “Thesis Statement” and “Thesis Statement: Needs Focus (Needs Improvement)”
Chapter Review
[Insert Video Icon] Video 6.4: “Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton”
Research is Essential
Video 7.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
Research Works Best When You Have a Plan

Inventory Your Research Needs
Find the Sources You Need
Keep Track of Your Sources
                          Key Term Video: Citation
Evaluating a Source’s Credibility
Observational Capacity
                          Video 7.2: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Testimony)”
Conducting Library Research
Reference Works
Government Documents
          Using the Internet
                Benefits of Internet Research
Disadvantages of Internet Research
Evaluating the Credibility of Online Sources
Credibility of Social Media
Searching the World Wide Web
          Interviewing Sources
                Prepare for Your Interview
Set Up Your Interview
Plan Your Interview Questions
Conduct the Interview
Evaluate Your Notes
          Presenting Evidence in Your Speeches
                Clearly Cite Your Source
Present the Information Accurately
                               Key Term Video: Paraphrase
Video 7.3: “Citing Sources (Statistics)”
Chapter Review
Key Term: Supporting Materials
Why Use Supporting Materials

Building Audience Interest
Enhancing Audience Understanding
Strengthening Audience Memory
Winning Audience Agreement
Evoking Audience Emotion
         Types of Supporting Materials
                               Key Term: Example
                               Key Term: Testimony
Video 8.1: “Royzpal, Litter”
                               Key Term: Statistic
Video 8.2: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Facts)”
                               Key Term: Narrative
                               Key Term: Analogy
Guidelines for Using Supporting Materials
                Choose the Most Credible Proof
Use a Variety of Supporting Materials
Appeal to Different Learning Styles
Avoid Long Lists
Consider Your Audience
                               Video 8.3: “Examples (Humorous)”
                Respect the Available Time
         Chapter Review9      ORGANIZING YOUR SPEECH
Selecting Your Main Points

Consider Your Purpose
Take Your Audience into Account
Select an Appropriate Number of Main Points
         Organizing Your Supporting Materials
               Subordination and Coordination
                             Video 9.1: “Without Liberty and Justice For All”
               When a Subpoint Doesn’t Fit
         Arranging Your Main Points
               Spatial Pattern
                             Key Term: Spatial Pattern
               Chronological (Temporal) Pattern
                               Key Term: Chronological (Temporal) Pattern
               Causal Pattern
                              Key Term: Causal Pattern
               Comparison Pattern
Categorical Pattern
                              [Insert Video Icon] Key Term: Categorical (Topical) Pattern
[Insert Video Icon] Video 9.2: “Singh, The Importance of Playing Sports Has Grown Over Time”
               Persuasive Speech Patterns
          Using Organizing Words and Sentences
                             Key Term: Transition
Video 9.3: “Patterns of Arrangement: Causal”
Internal Previews and Internal Summaries
         Chapter Review
Introducing Your Speech
               Gain Your Audience’s Attention
                              Key Term: Attention-Getter
Key Term: Rhetorical Questions
Video 10.1: “Anecdote (Personal) in an Informative Introduction”
               Signal Your Thesis
Show Your Audience What’s in It for Them
Establish Your Credibility
Preview Your Main Points
                          Key Term: Preview
Video 10.2: “Attention-Getter, Support, Creative Preview”
Concluding Your Speech
               Transition to Your Conclusion
Summarize Your Main Points
Finish with a Memorable Clincher
                             Key Term: Clincher
Video 10.3: “Clincher: Evokes Response”
Chapter Review

Two Stages of Outlining
               The Working Outline
The Speaking Outline
                          Key Term: Extemporaneous Delivery
Creating Your Working Outline
               Outlining the Body of Your Speech
                           Key Term: Transition
Video 11.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
               Outlining Your Introduction
                          Key Term: Introduction
               Outlining Your Conclusion
                            Key Term:  Conclusion
Video 11.2: “Without Liberty and Justice for All”
               Creating a List of Works Cited
Inserting the Title, Specific Purpose, and Thesis
                            Video 11.3: “Rate: Too Fast (Needs Improvement)”
A Sample Working Outline
Creating Your Speaking Outline
               Formatting Your Speaking Outline
Elements of Your Speaking Outline
         A Sample Speaking Outline
Chapter Review
Video 11.4
The Importance of Language and Word Choice
Differences between Oral and Written Language
Denotative and Connotative MeaningDenotative Meaning
Connotative Meaning
          Presenting Your Message Clearly
               Understandable Language
Concrete Words
Proper Use of Words
Concise Language
          Express Your Ideas Effectively
Hypothetical Examples
Personal Anecdotes
Vivid Language
                         Video 12.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
               Figurative Language
                             Key Term:  Figurative Language
Key Term:  Antithesis
Key Term:  Simile
Key Term:  Metaphor
Video 12.2: “Gender-Based Responses in Sports  Chatrooms”
Video 12.3: “Gender-Based Responses in Sports Chatrooms”
Choosing Respectful and Unbiased Language
               Avoid Stereotypes
Use Gender-Neutral References
Make Appropriate References to Ethnic Groups
Steer Clear of Unnecessary References to Ethnicity, Religion, Gender, or Sexuality
A Note of Appropriate Language and Political Correctness
          Chapter Review13      DELIVERING YOUR SPEECH
Key Term:  Delivery
Selecting the Right Mode of Delivery

Reading from a Manuscript
Memorizing from a Manuscript
Speaking from an Outline
Impromptu Speaking
                            Key Term:  Impromptu Delivery
Using Verbal Delivery Skills
                              Key Term:  Volume
Rate of Delivery
                             Key Term:  Rate of Delivery
Video 13.1: “Rate Too Fast (Needs Improvement)”
                              Key Term:  Pronunciation
                             Key Term:  Verbal Filler
Using Nonverbal Delivery Skills
               Eye Contact
                              Key Term:  Eye Contact
                             Key Term:  Gesture
Video 13.2: “Gestures: Overly Scripted (Needs Improvement)”
               Physical Movement
                            Key Term:  Physical Movement
Personal Appearance
                      Key Term:  Personal Appearance
Chapter Review
Why Use Presentation Aids?

Presentation Aids Can Make Your Speech More Interesting
Presentation Aids Can Simplify a Complex Topic
Presentation Aids Can Help Your Audience Remember Your Speech
           Types of Presentation Aids
               The Speaker
Visual Images
Text-Based Visuals
Audio and Video
           Using Technology Wisely
                Using Presentation Software
                             Key Term:  Presentation Software
                Using Other Technology
           Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids
                Consider the Forum
Consider Your Audience
Make Sure Your Aids Support Your Points
Keep Your Aids Simple and Clear
Rehearse with Your Presentation Aids
                    Video 14.1: “Presentation Software: Checking Beforehand (Needs Improvement)”
Using Presentation Aids During Your Speech
                Make Sure Everyone Can See and Hear Your Aids
Control Audience Interaction with Your Aids
Maintain Eye Contact
                              Video 14.2: “Presentation Software (Needs Improvement)”
                Remember the Purpose of Your Aids
            Chapter Review15        MEDIATED PUBLIC SPEAKING
The Rise of Mediated Communication

The Expansion of Mediated Public Speaking
Prerecorded and Real-Time Presentations
            Advantages of Mediated Presentations
                General Advantages
Advantages of Prerecorded Speeches
Advantages of Real-Time Technologies
                        Video 15.1: “Reagan, Moscow State University Address”
Challenges of Mediated Presentations
                Loss of Naturalness
Loss of Immediacy
Decreased Nonverbal Communication
Diminished Feedback
Difficulty Managing Distractions
Technological Difficulties
            Optimizing Delivery and Messages in Mediated Presentations
                Delivery Considerations
Message Adaptations
Practice Delivering and Recording
            Recording Your Classroom Speech
Setting and Background
Camera Positioning
                                  Video 15.3: “Fallacy: Red Herring (Needs Improvement)”
Special Considerations of for Real-Time Presentations
                Practice with Your Equipment to Make Sure It Works
Select a Robust Internet Connection
Use Group Chat/Video and Screen Sharing
Create Opportunities for Audience Interaction
Solicit Feedback through an Alternative Medium
            Chapter Review16        INFORMATIVE SPEAKING
Techniques for Informing

                                   Key Term:  Definition
                                    Key Term:  Explanation
                                    Key Term:  Description
                                     Key Term:  Demonstration
Video 16.1: “Garza, How to Buy a Guitar”
                                     Key Term:  Narrative
Video 16.2: “Conveying Information: Narrative (Needs Improvement)”
Types of Informative Speeches
Individuals or Groups

                          Video 16.3: “Conveying Information: Description”
            Developing Your Informative Speech
                Analyzing Your Audience
Selecting a Technique
 Key Term:  Demographics
                Focusing on Your Goal to Inform
            Clarifying and Simplifying Your Message
Sample Informative Speech
Chapter Review
The Nature of a Persuasive SpeechPersuasive Speeches Attempt to Influence Audience Members
Persuasive Speeches Advocate Fact, Value, or Policy Claims
                                           Key Term:  Fact Claim
Key Term:  Policy Claim
Video 17.1
The Nature of Persuasion
                 Two Paths to Persuasion
The Importance of Central Route Processing
Which Route Will Audience Members Follow?
            Tailoring Your Persuasive Message to the Audience
                  Adapting to Audience Disposition
Appealing to Your Audience’s Needs
Connecting to Your Listeners’ Values
Accounting for Audience Beliefs
Focusing on Peripheral Beliefs
Demonstrating How Your Audience Benefits
Acknowledging Listeners’ Reservations
             Ethical Persuasion
                  Help Your Audience Make an Informed Decision
Research Your Facts
Note any Biases
Attribute Your Research Properly
             Organizing Your Persuasive Speech
                  Organizing Fact Claims
Organizing Value Claims
Organizing Policy Claims
                                           Key Term:  Motivated Sequence
Video 17.2: Persuasive Speech using Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
Key Term:  Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern
Chapter Review
Ethos: Your Credibility as a Speaker

Understanding the Elements of Credibility
Building Your Credibility
Avoiding Loss of Your Credibility
             Logos: The Evidence and Reasoning Behind Your Message
Key Term: Logos
                  Using Evidence
Using Reasoning
                                          Key Term: Inductive Reasoning
Video 18.1: “Reasoning: Inductive”
                  Avoiding Logical Fallacies
                                    Key Term: Hasty Generalization
Key Term: Ad Populum (Bandwagon) Fallacy
Key Term: Ad Hominem (Personal Attack) Fallacy
Key Term: Slippery Slope Fallacy
Key Term: False Dilemma Fallacy
Video 18.2: “Fallacy: Either-Or (False Dilemma): Diplomacy vs. WWIII”
Pathos: Evoking Your Listeners’ Emotions
Key Term: Pathos
                  Using Emotional Appeals
                                  Video 18.3: “Claims: Fact (Appeals to Emotion and Crediblity”
                  Ensuring Ethical Use of Pathos
             Sample Persuasive Speech
Chapter Review
Video 18.4: “Morales, Without Liberty and Justice for All”
Types of Special-Occasion Speeches
General Guidelines for Special-Occasion Speeches

Appealing to Your Audience’s Emotions
                             Video 19.1: “Gentz, My Hero. Marilyn Hamilton”
                Matching Your Delivery to the Mood of the Occasion
Adapting to Your Audience’s Expectation
Evoking Shared Values
                                Video 19.2: “Language, Delivery and Special Occasion Speeches”
                Respecting Time Constraints
             Strategies for Each Types of Special-Occasion Speech
                Strategies for Speeches of Introduction
Strategies for Speeches of Presentation
Strategies for Speeches of Acceptance
Strategies for Speeches to Memorialize or Eulogize
Strategies for Speeches to Celebrate
Strategies for After-Dinner Speeches
Sample Special-Occasion Speech
Chapter Review
Effective Group Leadership

Selecting a Leader
Leading Meetings
Managing Conflict
             Effective Group Membership
                Three Types of Member Roles
Tips for Participating in a Small Group
             Group Decision Making and the Reflective-Thinking Process
                Define the Problem
Analyze the Problem
Establish Criteria for Solving the Problem
Generate Possible Solutions
Select the Best Solution
             Delivering Group Presentations
Panel Discussion
Single Group Representative
             Chapter Review